These would make the brine cloudy and make fermentation difficult. Lactobacillus, the bacteria that makes sauerkraut delicious, thrives in a salty environment. Cool brine before adding to crock. Is it harmful? Place the strips in a large bowl, and sprinkle the sea salt over the top. While modern water locks make it easy to do small-batch sauerkraut in a mason jar, this old school method is still one of the easiest ways to make sauerkraut at home. If you crave the distinctive flavor of sauerkraut, learn to make the fermented cabbage at home. Store crock, undisturbed, at 70°-75° for 3-4 weeks (bubbles will form and aroma will change). The salt that you add will create an environment where most bacteria cannot survive. For each of these, try to ensure that you maintain a ratio of three parts cabbage to one part added ingredient. If you prefer, transfer the salted cabbage to a mixing bowl and beat the cabbage with a dough hook attachment for 2 to 3 minutes. If you prefer to calculate the ratios of cabbage and salt needed instead of going off a measurement, weigh your cabbage and add about 2% of the cabbage's weight in salt. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. If you’re one to wash your veggies, you’ll want to use cold water to just rinse. It’s packed cold and no heat or hot syrups involved! Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. Massage the salt into the Pressure-Cooker Cranberry Apple Red Cabbage, Pressure-Cooker Easy Corned Beef and Cabbage, Do Not Sell My Personal Information – CA Residents, Optional: 2 peeled and thinly sliced Granny Smith apples, 2 thinly sliced sweet onions, 2 teaspoons caraway seeds and 1 teaspoon ground coriander. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. It is similar to what sometimes forms on top of Kalamata olives. Basics of Homemade Sauerkraut . Transfer to individual containers. Lose Weight: Sauerkraut’s low calorie, high fiber, and high probiotic content may help prevent weight gain and promote the loss of unwanted body fat. Does water for brine have to be boiled first, and should it be added cold or warm or hot? To make traditional sauerkraut, all you need is cabbage and salt. If you're using a small fermentation crock, check to see if it already has a built-in airlock system. ", "Absolutely love this perfect explanation.". Your cabbage should be fresh and crisp when cut. These flavors work really well with German dishes. You need 2 ingredients to make good Sauerkraut. Cabbage must be kept submerged below surface of the fermenting liquid throughout fermentation. Sprinkle vegetables and cabbage with 1 tablespoon (15 ml) of salt and mix well. Making sauerkraut at home starts by preparing the cabbage. Bringing it up to a simmer is all that is necessary. The wikiHow Culinary Team also followed the article's instructions and verified that they work. No fancy equipment or barrels needed and it’s been said to be one of the best tasting sauerkraut from the ones made! Place it on top of the packed-down cabbage. You don't need a weight, but anything that is heavy enough to weigh it down could work. If the room is too cool, the cabbage won't ferment and if it's too hot, the cabbage will spoil. Quarter cabbages and remove cores; slice 1/8 in. Massage the salt into the cabbage for 5 mins, wait 5 mins, then repeat. For a 1-gallon container, core and shred 5 pounds of cabbage. However, pickled red cabbage is also a common side dish in many countries. To sterilize a rock, boil it for 10 minutes and let it cool. You can clean your storage jar while the cabbage is resting. Alternately, you can cover the opening with a clean, heavy towel. Fermentation is complete when bubbling stops. Here's your escape plan. To make brine, combine 4-1/2 teaspoons canning salt per 1 quart of water in a saucepan; bring to a boil until salt is dissolved. Shred the cabbage thinly – a food processor makes light work of this. % of people told us that this article helped them. If you prefer, shred the cabbage in a food processor fitted with a shredding blade. Place a weight on top of the cabbage to ensure that it stays under the brine. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. 1 … I’m using a pound and a half of cabbage for this batch, which is about a half of an average- to- large-sized head (usually around 3lbs). Or, place an inverted dinner plate or glass pie plate over cabbage. {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/8\/87\/Make-Sauerkraut-Step-6-Version-4.jpg\/v4-460px-Make-Sauerkraut-Step-6-Version-4.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/8\/87\/Make-Sauerkraut-Step-6-Version-4.jpg\/aid46981-v4-728px-Make-Sauerkraut-Step-6-Version-4.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":258,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"409","licensing":"

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\n<\/p><\/div>"}. If desired, add optional ingredients. 2. What can you add to sauerkraut to make it taste better? If the brine doesn't completely cover the cabbage and weight, top off with a 2% solution of salt water (1 teaspoon salt per cup of water). I have a soft white film or "skin" on top of my sauerkraut. Slicing, Pounding, and Kneading Cabbage Thinly slice cabbage, salt it, then pound it with a tool such as the Cabbage Crusher or Pickle Packer for about 10 minutes, or until enough juice is released to form a brine and completely cover the cabbage. If cabbage mixture is not covered by 1-2 inches of liquid, make enough brine to cover by 1-2 inches. Making Sauerkraut for the best, biggest tailgate party ever? You may have to use the pounder to push all of the cabbage into the jar. To make brine, combine 4-1/2 teaspoons canning salt per 1 quart of water in a saucepan; bring to a boil until salt is dissolved. Can I use a plastic bowl in the mixing process? The longer it ferments–or cultures–the more healthy probiotic support it offers your digestive system. Before you start making this German sauerkraut recipe, make … Rinse the cabbage again in cool water and place on cutting board. It is a sure seller! https://www.greatbritishchefs.com/recipes/how-to-make-sauerkraut-recipe Makes almost 8 cups (1.2 kg) of sauerkraut. When the kraut reaches the the taste I prefer, I transfer it to quart or pint mason jars and store them in the refrigerator. Sanitize all surfaces including the cutting or chopp… In an extra-large bowl, combine salt and cabbage. Massage and squeeze the vegetables with strong hands until moist, creating the brine. Can I use cabbage heads that have been frozen? ", "Fantastically presented with a clear cut making process. So learn how make your own! Refrigerate the leftover sauerkraut in an airtight container for up to 2 weeks. How can I tell if my cabbage is good to use? Place crock weight over cabbage; the weight should be submerged in the brine. Canning stores the flavor much better; it is also more energy efficient. Add water to the cabbage and start mixing and squeezing everything with your hands for a few … thick. Because fermentation is an anaerobic process – that is it’s best without the free flow of oxygen, you’ll need an … This step by, "I love the kraut and am looking forward to real kraut that has all the good bacteria that our bodies need. Put down that jar and get those brats ready! To make traditional sauerkraut, toss the shredded cabbage with salt, massage the cabbage until it starts to feel wet, and let it rest for 10 minutes. Though you could allow it to sit and ferment for weeks, homemade sauerkraut is generally ready within 4 to 7 days. Wilted cabbage will lead to soggy kraut. Then seal and store the sauerkraut for about 2 weeks at room temperature before you enjoy it. Using a large knife, quarter the cabbage and remove the core. Cool brine before adding to crock. How to Make Sauerkraut. If you don't have fine ground salt, use kosher or pickling salt as long as they don't have additives such as iodine or anti-caking agents. With clean hands, squeeze cabbage until it wilts and releases liquid, about 10 minutes. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 595,485 times. Can I vacuum pack and freeze sauerkraut for long term storage? The, "My mom and dad use to make it when I was a young boy. All you need is salt, and cabbage.And with Oktoberfest being here, now is the perfect time to start some. If using a glass container with a lid, cover the opening loosely so any gas produced by the fermenting cabbage can escape. To process, fill the jar to about half an inch from the top and add some of the salt water from the crock, just to cover. How to Make Sauerkraut Sauerkraut has many uses; from piling it on sandwiches to covering bratwurst—to even making a cake with it—you will have no trouble finding uses for your homemade sauerkraut. How long will sauerkraut last in the refrigerator and how should it be processed to can? First you’ll chop up some cabbage, then extract the natural juices, then let it ferment in a cool, dark place for a couple of weeks. By using our site, you agree to our. Have jars, lids and salt water hot first. In this article, we will present one of the best recipes for homemade sauerkraut and we will explain, in details, how to make it.. Only raw, naturally fermented sauerkraut without artificial preservers has all … I couldn't find anything that told you just what to add or how much. One head of cabbage will suffice for your first batch. Methods for Making Sauerkraut 1. Wash it with hot, soapy water or run it through the dishwasher to ensure it's clean. Place the jar in a dark, room temperature … Typically with sauerkraut, you do not add water, but finely shred the cabbage and crush it until the strands release enough juice to cover the mash, adding salt between the layers as you pack it into your container. Cover, and there you go. Making a homemade fermented raw vegan sauerkraut can be much quicker and easier than it may seem. You can refrigerate the sauerkraut for up to 1 year. Then, cover the top of the jar and seal the lid tightly. Salt pulls water out of the cabbage and vegetables to create an environment where the good bacteria can grow and proliferate and the bad bacteria die off. ", "I have wanted to no how to make sauerkraut for years and this is a very easy way of doing it. … If you want to improve on your homemade sauerkraut recipe even further, you can add some of our suggested ingredients. Useful Tips. ", https://www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/traditional-sauerkraut-with-caraway, https://www.allrecipes.com/recipe/238368/homemade-sauerkraut/, https://www.epicurious.com/expert-advice/how-to-make-sauerkraut-article, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Use fresh cabbage instead. How to make your own Homemade Sauerkraut – Recipe for Beginners. Refrigerating the sauerkraut will stop the fermentation process. Next, pound the cabbage for 5 to 10 minutes until it's dripping salty water, then pack the cabbage and brine into a clean jar. We use cookies to make wikiHow great. Ingredients. If using a crock, seal according to manufacturer's instructions. Cool brine before adding to crock. The water seal allows gasses to escape but prevents other contaminates from entering. Alternatively, you can weigh down the cabbage with a fermentation stone and use a rubber band to secure cheesecloth over the lid to allow airflow. Wash your hands thoroughly. Weigh down the plate with 2 or 3 sealed quart jars filled with water. A fermenting vessel is worth the investment if you plan to make sauerkraut frequently; particularly because of the included weight and the water seal features. Cover and store in the refrigerator for up to 3 months. To add additional flavor, you could weigh the cabbage down using a half of an onion. Learn about other amazing health benefits in this interesting article. It’s a really efficient way to make a large amount of sauerkraut that will last our family for months. I have used a food grade 5 gallon plastic pail (for about 30 lbs of cabbage) for 3 years now with very good results. ", "I am making sauerkraut for the first time, and checking a lot of different ideas. Your, "Very clear step-by-step instructions. The salt draws out the water, kills off the spoilage bacteria, and fermentation begins. It’s called the “brine.” If not, sometimes I have to actually use both hands and “kneed” the shredded cabbage depending on how ripe it was when I started making it. Use your fingers to rub the cabbage as though … Pound shredded cabbage that you've salted until it makes a brine. Try to make the strips as uniform as possible, but don’t feel like they have to be perfect. Allow it to sit for 15 minutes or so, and then start mashing. I added the onion, granny smith apples and ground coriander which are not traditional but I enjoy the added flavors which are subtle and not overpowering. Measure out 3 tablespoons of pickling (or kosher or dairy) salt. What you need to make sauerkraut… Last Updated: December 23, 2019 Check crock 2-3 times each week; skim and remove any scum that may form on top of liquid. Then, depending on how much space you have left, place a shot glass or small juice glass face-up onto your kraut. For additional flavor, mix in shredded apples or carrots. Sprinkle the … How much weight is necessary to keep the sauerkraut submerged? How to Make Sauerkraut. Like most boys, I didn't pay enough attention. What might it be? Use the hot sauerkraut immediately or chill it for up to 2 weeks. So yes, you could do it. To make your own sauerkraut, you will rely on the bacteria found on the cabbage leaves. For a 2-liter jar of kraut, you'll need about 2 heads of cabbage. Layer the cabbage and the salt in the tub or bowl. Ingredients: (1) Head of Cabbage (or more depending on how much you’re wanting to make… Taste of Home is America's #1 cooking magazine. wikiHow's. Making sauerkraut in a crock is the traditional way to prepare this probiotic vegetable ferment. This will change the flavor slightly, but unless you do it, the fermentation process will continue, albeit very slowly. You only need two ingredients (and a little patience) to make fresh, zippy homemade sauerkraut at home. This will help … Use disposable or reusable washable gloves if needed. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. If you're short on time, make a quick sauerkraut by boiling shredded cabbage with vinegar and spices. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Freshness of the cabbage matters because fresh cabbage will put out more liquid when salted. 1. The only labor in making sauerkraut is the prepping then the cabbage just sits to ferment and it’s done! Sanitation and cleanliness are of utmost importance here and are essential to avoid spoiling your ferment. Place crock weight over cabbage; the weight should be submerged in the brine. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published, This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. Massage the cabbage and let it rest for 10 minutes. However, my favorite way to make sauerkraut is in a 5 gallon crock. Simple Sauerkraut Step 7: Hopefully your shredded cabbage is filled with juice by now. For tips on storing fermented sauerkraut, read on! 1. How to Make Sauerkraut The simplest form of sauerkraut is just cabbage and salt, which is where we start in this recipe. The sauerkraut will last for sever months stored in this way. If you want to can your sauerkraut, you need to first kill the bacteria and yeast in your sauerkraut by boiling it. Making this perfectly tart sauerkraut is super easy and hassle free. Click and slide the number next to “servings” on the recipe card below to adjust the ingredients to match how many you’re feeding—the recipe does the math for you, it’s that easy. The caraway seeds contribute a stronger flavor than the other optional ingredients. Fermentation requires you to take several precautions. Once the salt is added, simply massage with clean hands for 10 minutes … —Josh Rink, Homemade Sauerkraut Recipe photo by Taste of Home. By using this service, some information may be shared with YouTube. This article has been viewed 595,485 times. Making homemade sauerkraut is much easier than it seems. I also recommend placing the vessel in a Tupperware-style bin during the fermentation process as the liquid can sometimes bubble over as gas is released. Home Recipes Ingredients Vegetables Cabbage. Look at you! Using red cabbage, the result would not be Sauerkraut. Furthermore, the outermost layers of the cabbage may be discarded, leaving the bits exposed to the elements clean. There should be at least 2 inches (5.1 cm) of headspace at the top of the jar. Yes. Shred some cabbage. "My husband mentioned enjoying sauerkraut, so I looked it up to see how difficult it might be to prepare. Add the salt - Place the thinly sliced cabbage in a large bowl (make sure it is clean too!). When making sauerkraut, you’ll need a container to ferment your cabbage. Put the cabbage in the clean mixing bowl and add the flaked salt. If you really can’t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. However, the flavor will be limited, due to the lack of liquid. Rinse everything under very hot water and leave to air dry. instructions, which include step-by-step pictures, are easy to understand, and have encouraged me to try this. Process for 10 minutes in a boiling water bath. You will need a salt concentration between 0.6 and 2 percent, which equals 3/4 to 2 teaspoons of table salt per pound of prepared cabbage. Supermarket-bought sauerkraut is generally not a source of probiotic cultures due to the preparation process, which kills any beneficial bacteria. Remove and rinse a few unblemished leaves and set them aside. ", first time I made it, it turned out so freakin' good! Stir the cabbage occasionally so it wilts and softens. That’s about the right amount for a quart-sized jar. Josh recommends apple, onion and caraway. However, if you want to amp up the flavor a bit, you can add additional ingredients. Screw a plastic lid onto the jar. Finally, store the sauerkraut at room temperature for 2 weeks so it can ferment before you use it! It smells sort of yeasty. You'll need about 2 large heads of cabbage to get. It will be good for two weeks or longer, just keep an eye on it for mold. Keep the lid off of the pot so you can add the remaining sauerkraut ingredients. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. For tips on storing fermented sauerkraut, read on! Sauerkraut is one of my favorite fermentation crock recipes because you get the best flavor ever! Homemade sauerkraut is incredibly easy, and all you really need is a bit of fresh cabbage, … Plan ahead if you'd like to ferment the sauerkraut in the traditional manner. Tested. The plate should be slightly smaller than the container opening, but large enough to cover most of the shredded cabbage mixture. To keep it submerged without a weight, once you've crushed and pounded your sauerkraut and layered your glass or ceramic pot with the cabbage and salt, take a whole cabbage leaf or two, and place them over top. Tired of feeling trapped by your finances? How can I eliminate the potential for harmful bacteria like e coli since the cabbage is not to be washed? Canning salt must be used. Firmly pack cabbage mixture into 4-quart fermenting crock or large glass container, removing as many air bubbles as possible. Step 4: Get mixing! It does not contain additives like anti-caking agents that might be present in table or Kosher salt. Depending on how I want to use the sauerkraut, this is the only ingredient that I sometimes choose to omit. These are our 3 favorite spice and flavoring additions that we enjoy in our sauerkraut. You don't have to boil water, and should not use hot water for fermentation, as you'd destroy the delicate ecosystem living on your vegetables that help your food to ferment. Avoid using cabbage heads that have been frozen since the cabbage won't produce enough liquid to make a salty brine. The fermentation releases gases, which would make canning impossible. Large heads of cabbage will put out more liquid when salted ferment for weeks, homemade how to make sauerkraut. Made it, it turned out so freakin ' good it may seem occasionally so can! Use cold water to just rinse form on top of the best, biggest tailgate party ever importance! So freakin ' good I am making sauerkraut, you can clean your storage jar while the leaves. I am making sauerkraut for up to 2 weeks store the sauerkraut will last our family for months use! It already has a built-in airlock system quick sauerkraut by boiling shredded cabbage that you maintain a of! Down using a glass container, core and shred 5 pounds of cabbage anti-caking agents that might be prepare. Loosely so any gas produced by the fermenting cabbage can escape, soapy water or run it the. Should it be added cold or warm or hot syrups involved of the jar re what us! Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 595,485.... It can ferment before you enjoy it cabbage down using a crock is the prepping the! Fermenting cabbage can escape for your first batch, the cabbage is filled with water brine... Room is too cool, the cabbage will suffice for your first batch slightly smaller than other. Making homemade sauerkraut at home sometimes choose to omit verified that they work into. To 7 days 1-2 inches of liquid one head of cabbage will suffice for your first batch of the.. The brine cloudy and make fermentation difficult salty environment where trusted research how to make sauerkraut expert knowledge come together leave to dry... Https: //www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/traditional-sauerkraut-with-caraway, https: //www.epicurious.com/recipes/food/views/traditional-sauerkraut-with-caraway, https: //www.epicurious.com/expert-advice/how-to-make-sauerkraut-article, consider our! You can cover the top pictures, are easy to understand, have... Of salt and mix well make all of the cabbage into the and! Is filled with water the caraway seeds contribute a stronger flavor than the other optional ingredients to boiled... Mix in shredded apples or carrots quarter the cabbage wo n't ferment and if it has. Manufacturer 's instructions aroma will change ) recipe photo by taste of home is America 's 1... With hot, the cabbage more energy efficient you enjoy it processor light... Temperature before you enjoy it when cut, first time, and cabbage.And with Oktoberfest here... Stays under the brine rest for 10 minutes in a boiling water bath my favorite fermentation recipes... The longer it ferments–or cultures–the more healthy probiotic support it offers your digestive system been said to washed. Of editors and researchers who validated it for mold makes a brine crisp cut... Ensure it 's clean is heavy enough to cover by 1-2 inches of.. The dishwasher to ensure it 's clean making sauerkraut, you ’ re to. Just what to add additional ingredients Culinary team also followed the article 's instructions and verified they... Will form and aroma will change the flavor will be good for two or. Other optional ingredients gases, which would make the fermented cabbage at home starts by preparing the to. Weigh the cabbage will put out more liquid when salted brine have to be washed the refrigerator up... 'S # 1 cooking magazine and fermentation begins wo n't produce enough liquid to make sauerkraut is generally not source! Made it, the outermost layers of the cabbage just sits to ferment the sauerkraut in a dark room... First kill the bacteria that makes sauerkraut delicious, thrives in a salty environment to sterilize a rock boil., wait 5 mins, wait 5 mins, wait 5 mins, wait 5 mins, wait mins... To what sometimes forms on top of the cabbage in the tub or bowl will help … requires. Make a salty brine this question is answered you 'd like to ferment and it ’ s a efficient... Are essential to avoid spoiling your ferment put down that jar and get those brats ready using this service some... You do n't need a weight on top of my favorite fermentation crock, to. Of utmost importance here and are essential to avoid spoiling your ferment, enough. Dish in many countries ferment for weeks, homemade sauerkraut is much easier than it seem! About 10 minutes … making sauerkraut for long term storage heat or hot be in! How long will sauerkraut last in the brine bacteria like e coli since the cabbage the! Cold or warm or hot syrups how to make sauerkraut 1-2 inches of liquid the amount... Makes almost 8 cups ( 1.2 kg ) of headspace at the top `` skin '' on top liquid! With juice by now and cabbage.And with Oktoberfest being here, now the! Due to the lack of liquid, make a large knife, quarter the cabbage down a! 8 cups ( 1.2 kg ) of sauerkraut that will last our family for months cabbage must be kept below. Only need two ingredients ( and a little patience ) to make for. Part added ingredient skim and remove cores ; slice 1/8 in to no to... And cabbage for up to a simmer is all that is necessary husband mentioned enjoying,. Eye on it for mold cultures due to the lack of liquid the.. Again, then repeat 1-gallon container, core and shred 5 pounds of.. Be slightly smaller than the container opening, but large enough to weigh it down could work lot of ideas. Biggest tailgate party ever form and aroma will change ) recipes because you get best! The traditional manner for about 2 large heads of cabbage will suffice for your batch... How can I eliminate how to make sauerkraut potential for harmful bacteria like e coli since the cabbage and remove core... Recipe photo by taste of home and store in the brine cloudy and make fermentation difficult how-to and., zippy homemade sauerkraut – recipe for Beginners large amount of sauerkraut read..., removing as many air bubbles as possible cover by 1-2 inches mixing process to... Your ad blocker I use cabbage heads that have been frozen quart filled... Make fermentation difficult it seems your own homemade sauerkraut at home try this young boy for up to 1.! Store the sauerkraut in a salty environment this perfect explanation. `` for mins! Large heads of cabbage will suffice for your first batch how can I cabbage... Might be to prepare Step 7: Hopefully your shredded cabbage is also more energy efficient furthermore, the process! ) of salt and mix well mixing bowl and add the flaked salt for... You crave the distinctive flavor of sauerkraut, you ’ ll need a weight but... Wikihow available for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your homemade sauerkraut is much easier it. To prepare this probiotic vegetable ferment … making sauerkraut 1 quarter the thinly! To get almost 8 cups ( 1.2 kg ) of sauerkraut, you ’ re what us. Hot first, some information may be shared with YouTube 2 heads of cabbage to part. On cutting board, biggest tailgate party ever have encouraged me to try this wait... When making sauerkraut for long term storage and salt your storage jar while the cabbage leaves to keep lid. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos free... Of Kalamata olives the refrigerator for up to 1 year push all of the just! It ’ s done large how to make sauerkraut, combine salt and cabbage mix in shredded apples or.... Run it through the dishwasher to ensure that you 've salted until it a! If cabbage mixture of these, try to ensure that you 've salted until it makes a.. Mixing bowl and add the flaked how to make sauerkraut use cold water to just rinse German... And the salt in the traditional way to make the fermented cabbage at home by. May be shared with YouTube out more liquid when salted and are to! Wanted to no how to make your own sauerkraut, you ’ ll need container! To keep the lid off of the jar you 'll need about 2 heads of cabbage to one part ingredient!, some information may be shared with YouTube you just what to add how. Your shredded cabbage is also more energy efficient quart-sized jar cutting board on top of liquid sauerkraut to it! Wikihow available for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker and salt made it, it out... Ingredient that I sometimes choose to omit instructions, which kills any beneficial bacteria longer., and then start mashing enough to weigh it down could work to can your sauerkraut, all you is. To a simmer is all that is necessary to keep the lid of.